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Tyne and Wear HER(1297): Battlefield of Newburn Ford - Details

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1297


Gateshead and Newcastle


Battlefield of Newburn Ford


Newburn, Ryton


NZ16NE NZ16SE


Defence



Battlefield


Post Medieval


C17


Structure


King Charles I's attempt to impose a new prayer book on the Scots led to military conflict in the summer of 1640. To avoid assaulting the strong defences on the north side of Newcastle, a Scottish army of up to 20,000 men decided to cross the Tyne and attack from the weaker southern side. Lord Conway opposed the crossing from the south bank of the Tyne, constructing fortifications to defend both of the fords. The English were driven from one fortification by the weight of the Scots' artillery bombardment. The Scottish cavalry crossed the ford but were countered by English cavalry. The Scots forced the English to retreat to higher ground where they made a last stand but were beaten off by the Scots' advance, who afterwards occupied Newcastle. The cost to King Charles of raising the army and the need to buy off the Scots after their occupation of Newcastle forced the King to install the Long Parliament which sat through the Civil Wars until the Restoration. The landscape of 1640 was profoundly different from that of today. The river has been straightened and the floodplain largely developed. Even so, the topography allows an understanding of the course of events during the battle which took place over pastureland with woods on the steep river cliffs. REGISTERED HISTORIC BATTLEFIELD


16


65


NZ1665



<< HER 1297 >> R. Welford, 1887, Newcastle and Gateshead, III, 390-418 C.S. Terry, 1899, The Visits of Charles I to Newcastle… 2, Archaeologia Aeliana, XXI, 103 C.S. Terry, 1899, The Scottish Campaign in Northumberland and Durham… Archaeologia Aeliana, 2, XXI, 160 Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle, 1901, Stamfordham, Belsay, Shortflatt and Whalton, 2, IX (for 1899-1900), 186 Camden Society Miscellany, 1912, XII M.H. Dodds, 1930, Newburn and Newburn Hall Townships, Northumberland County History, XIII, 136-7 Proposed Battlefields Register, English Heritage, Newburn Ford 1640 Tyne and Wear Museums,1999, Ryton Haugh, Archaeological Evaluation Tyne and Wear Museums,1997, Stella South Power Station, Archaeological Assessment Tyne and Wear Museums, 2004, A Magnetic and Resistance Geophysical Survey at Newburn Ford; W. Bourn, 1896, History of the Parish of Ryton, pp 74-80; Glenn Foard and Richard Morris, 2012, The Archaeology of English Battlefield - Conflict in the Pre-Industrial Landscape, CBA Research Report 168; G Foard and Tracey Partida, 2010, At Risk Battlefield Report: Newburn (1st draft) on behalf of The Battlefields Trust for English Heritage; The Archaeological Practice, 2006, Riverside Works, Newburn Industrial Estate - Archaeological Assessment; Tyne and Wear Museums, 2007, Tyne United Rowing Club, Newburn Bridge Road, Ryton - Archaeological Desk-Based Assessment; Entec, 2008, Eastern Electricity Alliance, 4ZY Stella West - Eccles Over Head Line - Cultural heritage Report; Archaeological Services Durham University, 2010, Newburn Boathouse - Archaeological Assessment; Archaeological Services Durham University, 2010, Tyne United Rowing Club - archaeological evaluation and monitoring; Archaeological Services Durham University, 2010, Newburn Bridge Road, Blaydon - archaeological evaluation; NP Archaeology, 2011, Newburn Bridge Road, Ryton - archaeological evaluation; The Archaeological Practice, 2012, Land west of A1 Industrial Trucks, Shelley Road, Newburn - archaeological evaluation; North Pennines Archaeology Ltd, 2008, Archaeological Watching Brief Report on land at Whinhaven, Peth Lane, Ryton; SLR, 2013, Stella West Substation - Archaeological Mitigation Report; Alan Williams Archaeology, 2012, Keelman's Way Cycle Route, 2012, Archaeological Watching Brief; Ian Farmer Associates, 2010, Eastern Electricity Alliance Archaeology Report; Archaeological Services Durham University, 2007, Salmon Cottage, Newburn Riverside - metal detecting, environmental augering and monitoring; Vindomora Solutions, 2013, Tyne Rowing Club, Newburn, Newcastle upon Tyne - Archaeological Desk Based Assessment

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