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Tyne and Wear HER(16627): Hendon, paper works - Details

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Hendon, paper works




Paper Industry Site

Paper Mill

Early Modern


Extant Building

The paper works were open by 1872 producing 200 tons of printing and writing paper per week. Fred Miller (former manager of Ford Paper Mill) was the first Managing Director at Hendon. 18,000 tons of esparto grass was imported from Spain and North Africa per year. In 1873 there was a complaint under the Public Health Act regarding black smoke from the chimneys damaging trees and shrubs. In 1876 there was a complaint regarding 'offensive water' flowing across Hendon Beach. By 1887 the mill was producing 150 tonnes of paper a week. By 1902 the mill had become the largest paper mill in the north of England and had supplemented esparto grasas with wood pulp. Water for the mill was drawn from a well within the works and another from a pumping station in Leechmere Road, Grangetown. Within the complex of buildings was a reservoir with further reservois were located to the south of the buildings. These were used to control the quality of the copius amounts of water needed for making paper and for power generation. In 1902 and still in 1915 William Aitken was the secretary of the works. He lived at Hendon Grange, a building to the south of the main complex, adjacent to the reservoirs. Between 1923 and 1939 the mill was rebuilt, electrified and modernised. During and after WW2 the mill made more lower quality paper from waste paper and straw and became a big producer of duplicating paper. Wood pulp was imported from Scandinavia. By 1940 Hendon Grange was used as offices. Hendon Grange was demolished in 2002-3. Numerous alterations were made to the site from 1974 onwards including a new boiler house, steel chimney (1979-1980) and reel store (1999-2000). In 1998 the reservoirs in the south-west corner of the site were filled in and converted to a car park. The paper works ceased production in 2005. The buildings at the northern end of the paper works were still in use in 2010 by the Edward Thompson Group who owned the paper works since 1981. The C19 grass boiler house, turbine house and chimney and the C20 chemical house, beater house, machine house and finishing house were recorded before demolition in 2017.




TWM Archaeology, 2010, Sunderland Paper Mill, Hendon, Tyne and Wear - Archaeological Assessment; Second Edition Ordnance Survey plan, 1897; Plan of Hendon Paper Works 1944-45 TWAS DT.TRM/5/38-41; Entec UK Ltd, 2009, Commercial Road, Sunderland - Historic Environment Appraisal; ELG Heritage, 2017, Hendon Paper Mill, Sunderland - Building Recording Report; D. Linfoot, 2014, Hendon Paper Works Co. Limited; JV Stirk, 2006, A History of Papermaking in County Durham

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