Tyne and Wear HER(4415): Sunderland, John Paul Jones Battery - Details
Sunderland, John Paul Jones Battery
The threat posed by Napoleon in the later 18th century prompted a reassessment of coastal defences. This four gun battery on a bank behind the South Pier, known as the John Paul Jones Battery, later known as the Black Cat Battery, was built in the 1770s and appears on Rain's Eye Plan.
<< HER 4415 >> J. Rain, 1785, An Eye Plan of Sunderland and Bishopwearmouth Clay, Miller & Milburn, 1984, An Eye Plan of Sunderland and Bishopwearmouth, p 37 G. McCombie, 1997, The Development of Sunderland Town Moor, p 15 J.W. Summers, 1858, The History of Sunderland, p 76-85