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Tyne and Wear HER(1006): Winlaton Mill, Crowley Iron Works - Details

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1006


Gateshead


Winlaton Mill, Crowley Iron Works


Winlaton


NZ16SE


Industrial


Metal Smelting Site


Iron Works


Post Medieval


C17


Earthwork


Ironworks founded in 1691 by Ambrose Crowley. The large majority of the complex was erected between the late 1690s and 1718, with limited later additions and alterations. It consisted of a forge, slitting mill, plating (rolling) mill, steel furnaces, nail and file-makers workshops, warehouses, offices and housing. The Crowley Company also operated a similar complex at Swalwell, together with extensive workshops at Winlaton village. The Crowley works employed up to 1,000 people and had their own laws and social security system, including a system of sick pay, a health service, a school and widow's pensions over 200 years before such things became available nationally. The complex was unique in Europe. It was the forerunner of the factory system and also formed the origin of the North East's tradition of ironworking and naval engineering. The site worked until the mid-late nineteenth century and was later overlaid by coal waste from the nearby Clockburn Drift and by the Derwenthaugh Cokeworks. Excavation in 1992 showed some survival beneath the coal waste and has exposed a considerable element of an eighteenth cerntury dam, with associated spillway and race: Winlaton Mill. The Winalton Mill Works stood deserted for many years until it was finally demolished in 1936. SCHEDULED ANCIENT MONUMENT


1854


6055


NZ18546055



<< HER 1006 >> 1st edition Ordnance Survey Map, c.1855, 6 inch scale, Durham 6.JD/JM The Industrial History of the Derwent Walk Country Park -Historic Environment Record M.W. Flinn, (ed) 1952, Extracts from the law book of the Crowley Ironworks,The Publications of the Surtees Society, Vol CLXVII (167) Pers comm. I. Ayris, 1991, Winlaton Mill - Exposed Wall in Former High Dam Area Director of Planning, 1992, Recent Archaeological Excavations in Gateshead D. Cranstone, 1991, Winlaton Mill Report on site investigation, December 1990 D. Cranstone, 1992, Winlaton Mill Archaeological Investigations 1991-2 Crowley's - Gateway to the Old Works at Winlaton Mill A. Young, 1776, A Six Months Tour through the North of England I. Ayris & S.M. Linsley, 1994, A Guide to the Industrial Archaeology of Tyne and Wear, p 49 Dept. Culture Media & Sport, 2004, Schedule Entry Monument, No. 35568; W. Bourn, 1896, History of the Parish of Ryton

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